How Much Did Nigerian Households Pay For Petrol?? For April and May 2016

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Well it is no longer  news that the price of petrol in Nigerian has change  from N86.5k  to N145. Today we examine from the data if  government policy actually corrected some of price anomalies that characterized the petrol scarcity crisis which  rocked the country early this year.

Data clearly shows how some states have benefited from the new price adjustments (paid less compared to the previous periods during  petrol scarcity ) some examples include states like Ekiti which once paid N202.78k as at April 2016 but after government`s new price policy implementation, average purchase price of petrol by households as at May 2016 stood at N156.39k representing a 22.87% fall in price.
Anambra which once paid N193.85k as at April 2016 after government`s new policy implementation,average purchase price of petrol by households as at May 2016 stood at N147.08k representing a 24.13% fall in price.

However the same cannot be said for all states within the federation , as some states which enjoyed preferential treatment with regards to the old price and supply regulation policies ,now pay  more following the new policy by government.
For instance Lagos which once paid an average price of N92.59k as at April 2016 after government`s new policy implementation,average purchase price of petrol by households as at May 2016 stood at N144.75k  representing a 56.33% rise in price.
The Federal Capital Territory which once paid an average price of N107 as at April 2016 after government`s new policy implementation,
average purchase price of petrol by households as at May 2016 stood at N145 representing a 35.51% rise in price.

We await  June 2016 data  release by Nbs for further interpretation .

 

 

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Price Movements of Petrol In Nigeria From 1994 – 2016

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Over the years  price of petrol  as been regulated by various successive governments in Nigeria. In 2012 the Federal government announced the complete removal of petrol subsidy (Petrol was priced at N141 naira per liter )  which lead to a nationwide protests after which the government agreed to a partial removal of subsidy (Petrol was priced at N97 naira  per liter ).

In Jan 2015 government announced a price decrease in the regulated price of petrol (Petrol was priced at N87  naira  per liter ). In January 2016  government also announced another  price decrease  (Petrol was Priced at N86.50  naira  per liter )

Today the  country is currently  experiencing fuel supply challenges , government has announced a new price hike on 11th may 2016  signaling the removal of petrol subsidy (Petrol now priced  at N145 naira  per liter ).

Will this new policy finally ease supply challenges and stimulate more investment into the petroleum sector??????

Is The Price Of Petrol At Par Across States Within Nigeria ???

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If you are living in Nigeria then you must be familiar with the petrol crisis   that occurred some weeks ago where many Nigerians had great difficulty in buying petrol for their cars and generators . Many experts offer diverse opinions with regards to the cause and solutions to the petrol crisis.

Presently the government officially pegged the price of  petrol at N86.50 per liter, some have argued that its not just possible to have a uniform price of petrol across the entire country owing to many differentiated variable cost due to diverse distribution challenges of conveying products from source  to various locations.

 

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Presently Nigeria has about 3  petroleum refineries which are not yet operating at optimal capacity hence the government has to import petrol from overseas to meet up with the shortfall.

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From the chart above Lagos state has one of the lowest average purchase price of petrol paid by households, one very important factor responsible for this situation is the presence of a sea port in Lagos  through which importation  of petrol is facilitated . Also note Lagos does not have any petroleum refinery .

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From the charts above there exist price disparity among various geopolitical zones in the country.South west with the  lowest average purchase price of petrol paid by households and  south east has the highest purchase price paid by households.

In conclusion it very much safe to say that the price of petrol in Nigeria is not at par across the entire  states , because some states have certain comparative advantages (closeness to source ) and challenges (high distribution cost).

The states IGR stats for The Year 2014

The  Price of crude oil has taken a big hit (fall in prices) , federally allocated revenue from the sale of crude oil  to all states within Nigeria have been affected (declining revenues). This current trend has affected the fiscal policies of many states , with a lot of states having challenges in meeting up with their obligations.  The internally generated revenues  (IGR) constitutes other source of incomes to the states apart from the  federally allocated revenue from the sales of crude oil.

States would now have to rely  more on increasing  internally generated revenue by ensuring everyone pays his or her own fair share of  taxes. State that can effectively and efficiently increase their Internally generated revenues would find fiscal policy  implementation less of a headache than those would can`t.

The visualisation below shows the IGR for 36 states within the federation the size of the bubble is an indication of the amount Internally generated revenue for the 2014 year.

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Concluding remarks it is hope that public policy makers would take concrete steps at improving their IGR to avoid fiscal policy crisis.

 

 

What is an Online Analysis Processing System?

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What is an OLAP CUBE?

OLAP simply translated into Online Analysis Processing , it is the process of viewing data in a multi-dimensional format  i.e.  slicing and dicing of data from various  multiple perspectives.

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It involves the deployment of both fact and dimensional tables. Many enterprise business use OLAP to view their performance against diverse variables such as sales by locations by a given quarter.

I  have personal experiences with the application of OLAP systems in various data warehousing projects in which i have undertaken in the past. It is feels pretty good to harness the rich capabilities that an OLAP system brings into the business . Some of the features of an OLAP includes hierarchies look ups,drill through of data, slicing and dicing of  data  etc.

Why you need an Online Analysis Processing  System

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Many contemporary dashboards  reports are built on  existing OLAP systems, Your ROI upon the adoption of an OLAP systems for your business  would be very huge (i.e if you don’t have one already)

Some OLAP vendors

OLAP VENDORS

 

Graph Theory For Information Management

Graph theory is a mathematical concept on the basis of pair wise relationship between nodes or vertices.okay put simply it basically two entities connected by a relationship,
graph theory has been around for a very long time, however graph theory for information management has gained a lot traction due to recent advances made in technology.

Graph database modeling
Graph database modeling showing the relationship between nodes

I personal stumbled upon graph database last year  after taking keen interest in NoSQL database platform. A quote by Emil Emfrem “graphs are eating the world”
Today graph database platforms are in demand due to it improved performance especially when used for building modern day  applications (onsite and cloud-based solutions).

  Top ranked Graph database platforms ,seen below

1.Neo4j

2.OrientDB

3.Titan

4. ArangoDB

 

5.Virtuoso

I have personally used graph database platform for some of my contemporary jobs and  i can conclude without an iota of doubt that it is indeed ready to give other  database platforms a run for it money.

 

Some Graph Databases Applications

  1. Master Data Management
  2. Fraud Detection Analysis
  3. Project Management
  4. Social Network Analysis
  5. Real Time Recommendations and many more.